Copyright © 2009 Integrated Environmental Solutions Limited. All rights reserved
ENTRUST is one of the R&D projects that IES is involved in under the Smart City banner. It’s part of the Horizon2020 call topic ‘LCE20: The Human Factor in the Energy System’, and seeks to develop an understanding of Europe’s energy system.
In particular, it’s looking at how human behaviour and practices around energy is shaped by both technological systems and socio-demographic factors such as gender, age, and socio-economic status.
The knowledge generated from this project will ultimately contribute to improving stakeholder engagement across Europe, which is increasingly seen as essential if the EU is to implement the structural changes needed to move towards a less ‘carbon-intensive’ energy system.
IES is taking the lead in developing the project’s knowledge and communication platform, along with fellow partner STAM.
So who’s who’s in the IES Project Team?
Giulia Barbano, Project Manager, has worked for over 10 years in transferring sustainable built environment research to market, policy, and the public. She has contributed to several EU research projects as coordinator, manager and research leader, working at all scales from innovative materials to urban sustainability. At the international level she has organised dissemination activities and networking events for hundreds of researchers and professionals around the world.
Jessica Bergs is an expert in human-computer interaction and builds upon her educational background in media engineering and her work in Stuttgart´s creative industries as a developer and designer for interactive media for museums, events and showrooms. After attaining her Master´s degree with Distinction from the Glasgow School of Art, Jessica joined IES Ltd. where she now develops user-centred interaction concepts and prototypes for IES´ core product range and R&D projects.
Mark de Wit PhD joined IES in January of 2010 to apply his experience of delivering high-performance, data-intensive software solutions to the Virtual Environment, initially as a software developer, then Team Lead for the Model Interface team, and now as Software Architect. Prior to IES, Mark worked at a number of successful start-up companies, delivering innovative software solutions in data gathering and mobile phone applications. He holds a PhD degree in Computing Science from Glasgow University.
Michael Oates PhD is the Technical Analyst on commercial, and research and development (R&D) projects. Working for IES for over 4 years Michael has been technical lead/analyst on 6 FP7, H2020, and Marie Curie European projects. Mike´s research project topic areas include glazing (electrochromic glazing), retrofit technologies, manufacturing, and city modelling. He also has a focus on application development, including gamification.
To find out more about IES’s R&D work visit http://www.iesve.com/research.
The challenge isn’t proving the benefits of a smart city. It’s making the concept affordable for cities to implement.
Affordable Sustainability Solutions
Who wouldn’t want to live in a city where low energy costs, sustainable ways of living and great transport systems attract the best businesses, people and jobs? A city where physically integrating buildings with one another and with utilities increases the sense of community and makes everyone feel proud of their sustainability credentials, giving the city a unique sense of identity?
There are many reasons to make your city smart, and only one reason not to: the cost. That’s why we’re investing a third of our turnover into researching and developing solutions that allow the journey towards becoming a smart city to be taken one affordable step at a time.
Masterplans that take the lifecycle of the urban environment into account can enable city planners to affordably create Smart Communities, scaling up to Smart Cities. They can do this by taking control and setting sustainability targets that embed robust energy and environmental analysis at the core of this continuous lifecycle. By creating a joined up process that goes from masterplanning, through building design and retrofit, to building operation and control, and finally into the operation of a Smart Community.
Smart City Building Blocks
Building Data – For too long the design and maintenance of buildings have been kept separate. After a few decades, you might not even be able to access the plans. So much information is lost. By creating a city database capable of pulling together different file formats and filling in the gaps, we’re making building data accessible so that the right decisions can be made to optimise the buildings in a city at every stage of their life.
Energy Models – By creating 3D graphical models of how energy is being used across the city, we make it easy to see how the energy is flowing to flag up areas where more efficient ways of meeting or reducing demand need to be applied. By generating models capable of simulating the impact of the various solutions available, we can also predict which measures will have the most positive impact on the city.
Engaging Citizens to Change
Cities can’t make this happen alone. It won’t work if the citizen doesn’t feel involved. Not least because there’s a huge gap between creating the strategies and using and applying them correctly. Even the smartest sustainability features will fail to generate any savings if someone leaves a window open while the heating is on.
Citizens need to be educated about the benefits they can personally experience by using the city at its maximum capability. Typically they want to be helped to spend less or else can see the benefit of doing something more expensive to generate better savings in the long-term.
Economies of Scale for Individuals
As well as creating energy analysis tools for city planners, we’re also creating applications for citizens to see the final estimated savings on their energy bill if they join various participation schemes.
Supplier discounts – By showing individuals how much they could be saving by making their home more sustainable and grouping those prepared to invest in energy efficient windows, or solar panels, together, the city can secure a much better rate for 500 windows, or panels, than the citizen could get, making it much more affordable for them to improve their home.
Reduced energy tariffs – Energy is at its most expensive when it’s in most demand. By getting all the citizens in an area to agree to leave their heating on low in the winter, the city can prevent demand for gas from peaking in the morning to secure a better energy tariff. Similar schemes could encourage the use of timed appliances to prevent other energy peaks.
As well as educating and motivating citizens to reduce their energy consumption, another major benefit of smart city participation schemes is that it also encourages citizens to share data about their energy use, so that a working model of how energy is being used across the city can be created to inform other smart city initiatives.
Read more in IES – The Future of Energy Reduction.
By 2050, 70 per cent of the world’s population will live in a city. Demand for energy, water and other services will reach potentially unsustainable levels. Unless we use the economies of scale presented by people living in such close proximity to cluster energy needs together in ways that actually reduce energy consumption, resource use and costs.
The Cluster Principle in Action
Consider a row of four houses. Each house has its own boiler, requiring lots of energy to heat the water from cold, every morning and every evening, when the residents want their hot water. This isn’t a very good use of energy. Not only does it require the maximum amount of energy to heat the water from cold, there are four boilers in close proximity, all doing the same thing.
What if instead, you were to replace the four individual boilers with just one slightly larger boiler and leave it to run at optimal efficiency, just below its maximum load all day every day?
You could dramatically reduce the energy costs for the residents, while also increasing their access to hot water. Now this isn’t new, District Heating has been around in social housing contexts for decades, but we can now take this principle further to include community energy generation and sharing, national grid interaction, and connections to electric cars, transport and retrofitting, for example.
Making Cities Smart
Our vision is that by taking a smart approach to a communities’ development you can deliver a city which operates in an integrated fashion. One which uses digital technologies to enhance performance and wellbeing, to reduce costs and resource consumption, and also to engage more effectively and actively with its citizens. A Smart City.
Buildings; the main connectors between transport, energy, health, water and waste in a community, need to be at the core of this approach. Our belief is that by taking the lifecycle of the urban environment into account city planners can affordably start to create Smart Communities, scaling up to Smart Cities.
Imagine a series of smart neighbourhoods, made up of smart buildings capable of integrating with one another and the utilities to conserve energy. Each home is also capable of generating solar energy. The only problem is the residents are mostly out at work during the day, so they can’t use all the energy generated.
Instead of attempting to use harmful chemicals to store the energy, in a process that typically results in much of the energy being lost, a smart city would redirect the excess solar energy to a nearby business – as it’s being generated – eliminating waste and reducing costs.
Read more in IES – The Future of Energy Reduction.